of Environmental Terms
S3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle): As waste material countermeasures,
the 3Rs require reductions in the volume of waste through product resource conservation,
longer life of products and reduced generation of by-products in production processes
(Reduce); reuse of components (Reuse); and recycling of components (Recycle).
ASR (Automobile Shredder Residue): After disposal of fuel, oil
and other liquids by end-of-life vehicle dismantlers, the engines, transmission,
tires, batteries and other parts are separated, and the remaining bodies and other
parts are dispatched to a shredding facility. They are turned into shredder residue
after steel and nonferrous metal particles are separated out for recycling. Recycling
technology for this residue is now under development.
AT-PZEV: Advanced technology PZEV – meets PZEV requirements
and has additional zero-emission characteristics, like operation by natural gas
or by hybrid car's batteries.
End-of-life vehicles: Vehicles that are no longer used for transportation,
traditionally disposed of by dismantling, destroying, burning or landfill.
Environmental impact: That which, as a result of human activity,
affects the environment and is a cause of interference in environmental conservation.
Greenhouse gases: These are gases (CO2 , methane, CFC
alternatives and others) that absorb the heat (infrared rays) released by the sun-warmed
surface of the earth and cause global warming. Greenhouse gases absorb heat and
warm the air, but as their density increases, more heat is absorbed, and the air
temperature rises, resulting in global warming.
LEV: Low-emission vehicle. The basic standard for 2004 vehicles
in California. (It is stricter than Tier 2, the federal standard for 45 states and
the District of Columbia.)
PZEV: Partial zero-emission vehicle – Meets SULEV tailpipe
standards, has zero evaporative emissions and a 15-year or 150,000-mile warranty
on the PZEV equipment.
Recycling-based society: As an alternative to the existing high-consumption,
high-waste society, this is an economic society that aims at the simultaneous achievement
of environmental consideration and the pursuit of economic rationally through the
reduction, reuse and recycling of waste material, restricting as much as possible
the use of new resources and minimizing the volume of emissions.
SULEV: Super-ultra-low-emission vehicle – 90 percent cleaner
than the average 2003 automobile.
ULEV: Ultra-low-emission vehicle – 50 percent cleaner than
the average new 2003 automobile.
Zero emissions: This aims at building a recycling-based society
in which the recycling of waste from industrial and other activities and the prevention
of waste generation results in a society with no waste. “Zero emissions”
has a variety of meanings, but for Subaru it means activities that result in a zero
level of waste material to be disposed of in landfills.
ZEV: Zero-emission vehicle – has no tailpipe emissions and
is 98 percent cleaner than the average 2003 car. Includes battery-electric vehicles
and hydrogen fuel-cell cars.